Two broad categories of dating or chronometric techniques that archaeologists use are called relative and absolute dating.
Stratigraphy is the oldest of the relative dating methods that archaeologists use to date things.
Radiocarbon dating generally is not reliable for samples postdating c.
This dating method is also known as Archaeological Dating or Historical Chronology. These methods were relied on especially prior to the introduction of scientific methods of dating.
The absolute dating method first appeared in 1907 with Lord Rutherford and Professor Boltwood at Yale University, but wasn’t accepted until the 1950s.However, historical archaeology has tended to de-emphasize archaeometric analyses because of the availability of a documentary record.Absolute dating methods that rely on specialized laboratory analyses such as dendrochronology, radiocarbon, and luminescence measurements are available to historical archaeologists.Stratigraphy is based on the law of superposition--like a layer cake, the lowest layers must have been formed first.In other words, artifacts found in the upper layers of a site will have been deposited more recently than those found in the lower layers.
But, for a single culture site the method is quite reliable.